Basin refers to the area where the earth’s surface (lithosphere surface) subsides for a relatively long time. It is named because the whole terrain looks similar to the basin.
|1||The Siberian Basin||Siberia||The Siberian Basin covers an area of nearly 7 million square kilometers. It is the largest continental basin on the earth. It is divided into the West Siberian Basin (3.5 million square kilometers) and the East Siberian Basin (the area on the map is close to the West Siberian Basin). The Yenisei River bounds the two parts, and most of the middle part is connected. There are millions of square kilometers of Siberian plains in the Siberian Basin, The surrounding hills only account for a deficient proportion. The concept of the basin is mainly for the research needs of finding oil and gas in geology. Oil and gas are all in the basin.|
|2||Congo Basin||Between the guinea plateau, South Africa plateau, and azand Plateau||Congo Basin (also known as the Zaire basin) is the largest and most typical basin in Africa. The area is about 3.37 million square kilometers. It has the world’s second-largest tropical rainforest, second only to the Amazon River Plain, and is home to an extremely rich variety of species, including more than 10000 plants, 400 mammals, 1000 birds, and 200 reptiles. The forest here is known as one of the largest species gene banks on earth.|
|3||Chad Basin||North-central African continent||Chad Basin, a huge inland basin in Africa, is located in the north-central part of the African continent, covering an area of about 2.5 million square kilometers. It mainly includes Western Chad, Southeast Niger, northeast Nigeria, and Northern Central Africa. It has high temperatures throughout the year, with an annual average temperature of more than 26 ℃ and annual precipitation of 500 ~ 1000 mm. It is an approximately centripetal inland water system. The vegetation is mainly savanna. The soil is semi-arid brown soil and marshy saline soil along the lake. It produces salt and natural alkali. Lake Chad is rich in the fishery. Roughly bounded by 15 ° north latitude, the northern climate is arid, desert or semi-desert, and it is an extensive animal husbandry area; The south is relatively humid and is a tropical grassland. The sari River and luogong river basins are important agricultural areas, rich in cotton and grain.|
|4||Great Artesian Basin||East of central Australia||The Great Artesian Basin, also known as the “Great Australian Basin”, is the world’s largest artesian basin, with an area of 1.75 million square kilometers. The Australian rock stratum is covered with an impermeable layer. It is rainy in the East, forming water receiving area. The groundwater flows at a rate of 11 ~ 16 meters per year to the less rainy areas in the West. Confined water gushes out of the surface through drilling or natural springs, so the artesian basin is named. The development of animal husbandry in Australia benefits from this unique terrain.|
|5||Kgalagadi Basin||South African Plateau||The Kgalagadi basin, the largest wide and shallow basin on the South African plateau cover an area of 630000 square kilometers. The terrain fluctuates slightly, with an altitude of 900 ~ 1100 meters. The lower part of the south is about 700 meters, surrounded by plateaus and mountains with an altitude of 1500 meters. There is an east-west low watershed in the middle, which divides the basin into North and south parts. There are many marshes, lakes, and depressions in the north, such as Makadi Kadi salt marsh, Okavango salt marsh, etc; There is karahadi desert in the middle, desert, and semi-desert in the south, with scattered sand dunes and a small number of isolated island hills. It has a tropical arid and semi-arid climate, with an annual average temperature of 21 ℃, and a large annual and daily range. The annual precipitation is 150 ~ 450 mm. It is an inward flow area, with the exception of the botetti River, which flows impermanently. The groundwater is abundant with springs. The vegetation is spiny Savannah, dominated by herbs, and dense shrubs in the north. There are many antelopes and other tropical animals. The Southwest has been set up as karahadi antelope National Park. There are diamond, copper, lead zinc, vanadium, and other minerals.|
|6||Bohai North China Basin||Between Taihang Mountain and Jiaodong and Liaodong peninsulas||Bohai North China basin is divided into Bohai Bay Basin (220000 square kilometers) and South-North China Basin (more than 100000 square kilometers), with a total of more than 300000 square kilometers,|
The importance of this basin concept: geology studies oil and gas for exploration. Agriculture attaches importance to the concept of the North China Plain. The North China basin is mainly a relatively concave area in the North China Plain.
|7||Caucasus Basin||Caucasia||The Caucasus basin includes the north Caucasus basin and the former Caucasus Krim basin. In the Caucasus Mountains (440000 square kilometers in the Caucasus), including the Caucasus plain and the Caucasus hills, the area may be more than 300000 square kilometers.|
|8||Upper Nile Basin||Southern Sudan||Also known as the “ghazal basin”. A huge basin in southern Sudan. 5 ° -10 ° north latitude. The area is about 300000 square kilometers. Originally an inland lake basin, the land was formed by water leakage due to sedimentation and slight crustal uplift. The terrain is low and flat, with an average altitude of 400 meters. Surrounded by plateaus and mountains with a height of more than 700 meters, there is only an exit in the northeast, even jezila plain. The White Nile and its many tributaries flow vertically and horizontally, and the pond is a swamp where the water flow is not smooth. There are oil reserves in Bentiu and other places. It is hot and rainy, and the land is fertile. Important agricultural areas are rich in sorghum, potato, cotton, sesame, peanut, sugarcane, etc. The cattle industry is developed.|
|9||Sichuan Basin||The central and southern part of the Asian continent, the heartland of China, and the middle part of the eastern margin of Western China||Sichuan Basin is one of the four major basins in China; The Sichuan basin covers an area of more than 260000 square kilometers, accounting for 46% of the area of Sichuan Province. It can be obviously divided into marginal mountains and the bottom of the basin, with an area of more than 100000 and 160000 square kilometers respectively. The marginal mountains generally have 2-5 vertical natural zones from bottom to top. Purple soil is rich in calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients, and is the most fertile natural soil in China. Sichuan Basin is the place with the most concentrated distribution of purple soil in China, which is known as the “Purple basin”. The bottom of the Sichuan basin covers an area of more than 160000 square kilometers. According to its geographical differences, it can be divided into three parts: the western plain of the basin, the hills in the basin, and the parallel mountains and valleys in the east of the basin.|
|10||Qaidam Basin||Northwest Qinghai Province, China||Qaidam Basin, located in the northwest of Qinghai Province, China, is one of the four major basins in China. Qaidam is not only a world of salt, but also rich in oil, coal, and a variety of metal deposits, such as Lenghu oil, Yuka coal, Xitieshan lead-zinc mine, etc. Therefore, Qaidam Basin has a reputation as a “cornucopia”. The basin is slightly triangular, about 800km long from east to west and 300km wide from south to north, covering an area of 257768 square kilometers.|
|11||Large ocean basin||Persian Gulf Basin, Caspian Sea Basin, East China sea basin||①The Persian Gulf Basin, with 3.18 million square kilometers, is the contemporary world’s major oil-producing area.|
②Europe’s Caspian Sea basin, with nearly 510,000 square kilometers, produced 50 percent of the world’s total crude oil production in 1901. The Persian Gulf basin later replaced its primacy.
③The East China Sea Basin is a Marine basin in the marginal sea of China, with an area of about 460,000 square kilometers.
|12||South Asia Basin||Mainly in Rajasthan||South Asian Great BasinThe South Asian Great Basin is the eastern Pakistani Great basin of Rajasthan, India, mainly in Rajasthan, covering an area of more than 300,000 square kilometers.|
|13||Ordos Basin||Ordos Basin||Geologically, the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia basin is called the Ordos Basin: starting from Yinshan and Daqingshan in the north, reaching Longshan, Huanglong, and Qiaoshan in the south, Helen and Liupan Mountains in the west, and Luliang and Taihang Mountains in the East. With a total area of 370000 square kilometers, it is the second largest sedimentary basin in China (ranking second in China’s four major basins).|
|14||Tarim Basin||Xinjiang, in Northwest China||The Tarim Basin is the largest inland basin in China. The basin is located between Tianshan Mountain, Kunlun Mountain, and Altun mountain. The widest part in the north and south is 520 kilometers, and the longest part in the East and West is 1400 kilometers, covering an area of more than 400000 square kilometers. The altitude is between 800 and 1300 meters. The terrain is high in the West and low in the East. In the middle of the basin is the famous Taklimakan Desert, which is surrounded by foothills, Gobi, and oases (alluvial plains). The Taklimakan Desert is located in the center of the Tarim Basin. It is almost rain free all year round. It is considered to contain rich oil and natural gas, and the terrain is closed, The opening faces southeast.|
|15||Great Basin||Western American Mount Cordillera||The Great Basin is a plateau inland basin in the Cordillera mountains in the western United States. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains are in the west, the Wasatch Mountains are in the East, the Columbia Plateau is in the north, and the Colorado Plateau is in the south. It is composed of a series of North-South massive mountains (1800-3300 meters above sea level) and many basins between them. The bottom of the basin is 1200-1500 meters above sea level, and the lowest dead valley is 85 meters below sea level. It covers an area of 520000 square kilometers. The climate is dry, the annual precipitation is 100-350 mm, and there are few plants, mainly drought tolerant shrubs. A salty lake. Large lakes include large salt lake, pyramid lake, Seville lake, Utah lake, etc. It is rich in copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, and other minerals. There is animal husbandry and irrigated agriculture in the foothills.|
|16||Great Basin, South America||The Yanos Plain in eastern Colombia in Latin America and the Orinoco Plain in central Venezuela||The South American basin (mainly plains and vast hilly areas) where the Yanos plain in eastern Colombia and the Orinoco plains in central Venezuela are located in Latin America, with an area of about 600000 square kilometers, is the largest sedimentary basin in the world. In the introduction of Latin America, the so-called northern Latin America is a vast basin, and Venezuela petroleum said that Venezuela has the largest sedimentary basin in the world, which refers to this basin.|
|17||Junggar Basin||The northern part of Xinjiang, China||It is the second largest inland basin in China. The Junggar Basin is located between the Altai Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains, with the western Junggar mountains in the west and the foot of North ita in the east. The basin is an irregular triangle, the terrain slopes to the west, slightly higher than in the south, the elevation of Lake Urengu (Bruno Sea) in the north is 479.1 meters, Lake Manas in the middle is 270 meters, and Lake Abbey in the southwest is 189 meters, which is the lowest point in the basin. It contains the Gulbantonggut Desert, one of the eight deserts in China. There are several gaps on the west side of the basin, such as the Irzise Valley, Emin Valley, and Ala Pass. The westerly air flows enter from the gap, bringing precipitation to the basin and the surrounding mountains.|