|True story of Ah Q
|It is not easy to choose a thinker among Chinese writers. Being independent is not the spirit of the Chinese people. Slightly deviant, either stick to kill, silently kill, or support to kill. Undoubtedly, Lu Xun passed through every set of killing methods, but when and what to do was determined by the ups and downs of the times. However, Lu Xun is still the leading writer in China in the past century, and the true story of Ah Q is his masterpiece.
|《 War and Peace 》
|Tolstoy is undoubtedly one of the greatest writers of all time. As a great writer, his works are enough to win him immortal status, but as a great man, he is not satisfied. He spent the last thirty years of his life thinking about some basic problems of life. We chose war and peace because we can directly see his historical thought. Although history has passed, it cannot be cut off with a knife and axe. It still affects our present and our future.
|The discovery of India
|Like China, India is now one of the four major cultures in the world, but we know little about India. In other words, the best way to understand a nation is to understand its history. Although India’s history is fragmented, there are many missing links; But the discovery of India is the best primer on Indian history.
|Uncertainty or chance are the factors that often play a role in the world’s problems, especially human problems. In fact, Pascal challenged the world outlook of determinism with the method of probability, whether it is God’s determinism or scientific determinism. This method developed into a set of stochastic decision-making theory in the 20th century.
|Chrysanthemum and knife
|In the 21st century, there are five major economic powers in the world, and Japan is the only eastern country shortlisted and the country that has reached this step fastest. This book was completed just after World War II. The author made a good summary of Japan’s nationality. After 50 or 60 years, the views in the book are basically not outdated. We can call this the stability of “nationality”. Undoubtedly, Japan was and will be an influential nation.
|One hundred years of solitude
|For most people, Latin America is still a mysterious region. In this book, Marcos uses marcondo to condense the fate of Colombia and even Latin America. Ignorance, isolation and chaos are the internal causes that will remain unchanged for a hundred years, while the Yankees and dictators are the external causes. So what does “loneliness” mean? The author said that “the opposite of loneliness is unity”. He suggested a way out, but the conclusion is frustrating: after a hundred years, it seems that this is the fate of Latin America.
|《 Heart of Darkness 》
|The African continent is a geographical concept. The part we know little is commonly known as sub Saharan Africa. This book is about this place. The dark heart has two meanings. One is the heart of black Africa, which belonged to Congo at that time; First, civilized people, that is, colonists, plunder from the outside to the inside and corrode the spirit. Black Africa is either retrogressive or still stagnant there. The prospect of a growing population, always accompanied by famine and poverty, is worrying.
|For a long time, the study of mind has been the territory of philosophy and even theology. Up to now, there are still many disputes about whether psychology is a science. Wundt’s main contribution is to advocate the use of scientific methods to study psychology. In 1879, he established the world’s first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, which marked the official birth of experimental psychology and the birth of psychology as a science.
|Science and civilization in China
|Joseph Needham’s “science and civilization in China” is voluminous and has not yet ended. He spent his whole life studying ancient Chinese science and technology, and finally left the famous Needham Puzzle: Why did such advanced ancient “science and technology” fail to produce modern science?
|There are a lot of inconsistencies, inconceivable and even absurd places in the Bible, which were realized as early as the founding of Christianity. But many of them adopt the attitude of “faithfulness” and “believe it just because it is not credible”. Thomas Aquinas first sought to prove the first creed of Christianity, namely “the existence and uniqueness of God”. This not only makes theology have the flavor of mathematics, but also introduces a series of propositions and forms a subtle theological system.
|Heroes and hero worship
|Many people support and criticize the various views of this book. But as Carlisle said, “as long as human beings exist, hero worship will never die”. Whether “the situation makes heroes” or “Heroes make the situation” is not a simple question that can be answered by “yes” and “no”. With the diversification of modern society, the question of “how heroes stand out from all walks of life” is put forward.
|A Han Jing
|Buddhism is the oldest world religion. Buddhism does not have a God that centralizes people’s worship, let alone a classic that everyone agrees with. Ahan Sutra is the closest classic to primitive Buddhism, including hundreds of sutras.
|Collection of essays
|Even if a country has poetry, drama and later novels, it cannot be called a great literary country without decent and exquisite prose. Montaigne’s essay opened up the most advanced literary form for prose, and set a standard and example for it with its directness, substance and inspiration.
|《 Jude the Obscure 》
|The tragedy of Hardy’s works is shocking. This is a real tragedy of human nature. People hope for the rise of spirit, but not everyone has this opportunity. People who have the opportunity may not really have knowledge and creativity. They advise Jude to keep himself in peace and be happy. Should this be the philosophy of people in the future?
|“The Country and the Revolution.”
|“State and revolution” systematically investigated and expounded the basic theories of Marx and Engels on state issues. Lenin greatly developed Marxist theory and established the first proletarian dictatorship state through his own revolutionary practice.
|another name of Lao-tzu
|Tao Te Ching
|It is the most influential but shortest book in the world. Generally speaking, Laozi and the Analects of Confucius are almost completely different and complement each other, forming Chinese traditional culture. Confucius has always been the ruling School of Chinese culture, while Lao Tzu is the ruling school. The most meaningful part of Lao Tzu’s and even Taoism’s theory is to open up a path of spiritual escape for Confucius’s “ideal country”.
|From some cultures, conquering nature and such self challenges are unreasonable and stupid. Behind these stupid things, there is a valuable spiritual strength, the will to live through hard work in difficulties and the courage to overcome disaster and loneliness. Although the words like “man will conquer heaven” seem wrong now, modern people should protect the human living environment and overcome themselves with Robinson’s spirit.
|The world as will and representation
|Truly great ideas always stand the test of time. Many people criticized Schopenhauer, but Lukacs, who criticized him most, had to admit his philosophical talent. Schopenhauer has many original ideas, which are based on two theories: voluntarism and pessimism. The former established metaphysics with will as the core, thus opening up an irrational trend of thought for nearly two centuries.
|Democracy and education
|Almost all western philosophy comes from Europe, and only pragmatic philosophy is native to the United States. Pragmatism philosophy is a very flexible and closely linked philosophy. Its spirit is fully reflected in pedagogy. More importantly, the topic of education will be one of the most important controversial issues in the 21st century. Dewey’s thought and the practice of progressive education must be of reference significance to later people.
|《 human capital 》
|In addition to population and environmental problems, the biggest problems in the 21st century are health, education and related human and social development. Generally, people always emphasize the material gap between people and countries; In fact, in the long run, the spiritual and cultural gap is the biggest. Becker’s core idea is that it also needs investment! He also pointed out that in addition to personal benefits, social benefits should also be considered, which is also a subject that needs in-depth research in the future.
|《 theory of economic development 》
|Schumpeter’s uniqueness is that he clearly distinguishes between invention and innovation. From Adam Smith to Marx, we all know that technological invention has a great impact on the economy, but Schumpeterian innovation is entirely the business of “entrepreneurs”. Schumpeter’s view is not only proved by many cases in the past that technological progress led to innovation and thus promoted the economic upsurge, but also clearly shows that in 2000, the upsurge information economy suddenly “foam burst”.
|《 collected works 》
|One distinctive feature of Borges is that he may have read thousands of writers and works. His works include the essence of the world civilization of 2500 years. This may also be the true meaning of “classical”. Life is too short. How can you read so much and experience so deeply. Then read Borges. He can help you.
|Country and market
|From the end of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century, the trend of globalization is unstoppable. Although international relations, international affairs, international politics and international economics have long become the research fields; However, only this book gives a systematic summary and formulates a research and analysis framework, which is the starting point of theoretical and practical work in the future.
|《 A Tale of Two Cities 》
|It describes the earth shaking era of the French Revolution, which shows the cruel class struggle. Dickens once again weaves a story of a kind man dying for his friend for the world in the spirit of compassion. However, he could not explain the mystery of history: Why did all this happen?
|The structure of the scientific revolution
|Kuhn’s contribution to the philosophy of science is mainly to put forward the concept of “paradigm” and the division between conventional science and scientific revolution. He became the founder of the historical school in the philosophy of science. It is the scholars who are eager to bring their theories into the framework of General Social Sciences, and they must play a major role.
|Stages of economic growth
|The core of Rostow’s theory is that the economic development of all countries must go through five stages. However, because his theory is based on the economy from 1800 to 1950, there are obvious deficiencies in dealing with the situation of post industrial society. Population, poverty, development and unemployment are still major economic problems in the 21st century. There is still a long way to go from traditional economy to modernization and then to globalization. Rostow’s research is just a beginning for the study of growth and development economics.
|Industrial management and general management
|By the beginning of the 20th century, management had entered the stage of scientific management. Fayol gave a framework for management, created the field of organization research, expanded the fields involved in scientific management principles, and laid a foundation for modern organization theory. He compared the organization to an organism, which is instructive to later people. Because of this, his theory has been criticized, supplemented and developed.
|“One dimensional man”
|In the mid-1960s, a student movement shocked the world broke out in western developed countries, and 3M was regarded as the spiritual mentor by radical students: Marx, Mao Zedong and Marcuse. The new changes in western countries after World War II prompted them to rethink Marxism. One dimensional man is the product of Marcuse’s mature thinking in this regard
|A dream of Red Mansions
|A dream of Red Mansions has a great influence in China, but it has little influence in the world. What does this contrast mean? “A dream of Red Mansions” is completely “Chinese”. This Chinese flavor may be experienced in Chinese poetry, Chinese calligraphy and painting, Chinese gardens and even Chinese operas, but a dream of Red Mansions is all-round. It is the epitome of Chinese (traditional) society.
|Motivation and personality
|Today, psychology has become an extremely complex discipline system. In the mid-20th century, the two largest academic schools were Freud’s psychoanalysis and the behaviorist school that emphasized scientific methods. Maslow advocated the third trend of thought in psychological research, namely humanistic psychology. This trend of thought emphasizes that people have independent personality, have the potential to develop themselves and can realize themselves. The concept of “self realization” was put forward by Maslow and brought into full play.
|“The Mass and the Power.”
|Carnetti’s “masses and power” is the result of his life experience and continuous exploration and thinking. In the spirit of science, the book studies four major themes: masses, power, death and transformation, and closely connects them. There have been some discussions on mass psychology in history, but there is no theoretical research. Carnetti’s uniqueness lies in the connection between power and death. “The moment of survival is the moment of power,” he said
|The Honest Man or Optimism
|Voltaire was the standard bearer of the enlightenment. He has so many works that it is difficult to say which one is his masterpiece. However, there is one kind of works suitable for our needs, that is philosophical novels. It seems that no other writer has written such works. The philosophy of honest man is quite simple, but it is encountered in any era: whether it is natural disaster or man-made suffering, it has nothing to do with God. Only by fighting against evil forces through reason and justice can the world gradually become a better place.
|《 new science 》
|Vico was a pioneer of Romanticism from the 18th century to the 19th century. At that time, the mainstream trend was to apply natural scientific methods to study all phenomena, especially psychological, political, economic and cultural; However, Vico was the first to clearly distinguish between natural science and humanistic research, and recognized the diversity of culture, which laid the foundation for comparative cultural anthropology, comparative historical linguistics, comparative historical aesthetics, comparative historical jurisprudence and so on.
The ranking is based on the data of popular books all over the world. I hope you like it for reference and learning.